Institution name and department

School of Chemistry and Biosciences

University of Bradford

Position held


Lecturer in Bio-Organic Chemistry



Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DP



This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Key words (up to 5)





Scale Up



Organic Synthesis



Areas of Research/Expertise 

My main areas of research within the mechanochemistry field include:

1)    Scale up of both organic and inorganic material synthesis under solvent-free conditions, employing Twin Screw Extrusion (TSE).

2)    Understanding the kinetic processes occurring during both ball mill and extrusion processes as well as how this has an effect on physical properties of the reaction

3)    Carrying out sonochemical reactions, under solvent-free conditions, employing an ultrasonic cleaning bath. These reactions include a variety of organic systems and the formation of co-crystals via this route. It also allows


5 Most representative publications related to mechanochemistry 

1.    Greener Dye Synthesis: Continuous, Solvent-Free Synthesis of Commodity Perylene Diimides by Twin-Screw Extrusion

Cao, Q.  Crawford, DE; ; Shi, CC; James, S.L.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 4478. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201913625.


2.    Insights into mechanochemical reactions at the molecular level: simulated indentations of aspirin and meloxicam crystals

Ferguson, M; Moyano, MS; Tribello, GA ; Crawford, DE ; Bringa, EM; James, S.L. Kohanoff, J; Del Popolo, MG;

Chem. Sci. 2019, 10, 2924. DOI: 10.1039/c8sc04971h.


3.    Feedback Kinetics in Mechanochemistry: The Importance of Cohesive States

Hutchings, BP; Crawford, DE; Gao, L; Hu, PJ; James, S.L.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.  2017, 56, 1525. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201706723.


4.    Synthesis by extrusion: continuous, large-scale preparation of MOFs using little or no solvent

Crawford, D; Casaban, J; Haydon, R; Giri, N; McNally, T ; James, S.L.

Chem. Sci. 2015, 6, 1645. DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03217a


5.    Solvent-free sonochemistry: Sonochemical organic synthesis in the absence of a liquid medium.

Crawford, D. E.

BJOC, 2017, 13, 1850. DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.13.179.


5 Most representative publications non-related to Mechanochemistry 


Orcid ID/ Google Scholar/ Researchgate/ Scopus profiles

Orcid ID


Google Scholar




Scopus profiles


Twitter/ Linkedin/ Instagram accounts




Instagram accounts



Contact Info

  • Université de Montpellier & Institut Charles Gerhardt de Montpellier (UMR 5253)
    c/o 8, Rue de l’Ecole Normale
    34296 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

  • +33 (0)4 67 14 43 10
  • This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

COST Overview


EU COST is supported by the EU Framework Programme Horizon 2020.



COST Action CA18112